Particles are today the main tool to study superfluid turbulence and visualize quantum vortices. In this Rapid Communication, we study the dynamics and the spatial distribution of particles in coflow and counterflow superfluid helium turbulence in the framework of the two-fluid Hall–Vinen–Bekarevich–Khalatnikov (HVBK) model.
We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of the HVBK equations along with the particle dynamics that depends on the motion of both fluid components. We find that, at low temperatures, where the superfluid mass fraction dominates, particles strongly cluster in vortex filaments regardless of their physical properties. At higher temperatures, as viscous drag becomes important and the two components become tightly coupled, the clustering dynamics in the coflowing case approach those found in classical turbulence, while under strong counterflow, the particle distribution is dominated by the quasi-two-dimensionalization of the flow.